Saturday, March 19, 2016

Berlandier Esenbeckia

Esenbeckia berlandieri
Also called Jopoy. It is an attractive, small tree, that is part of the Rue family, that is native to the Rio Grande Valley. It was considered extinct until recently rediscovered in Texas. It is semi-evergreeen to evergreen. Some records include: largest on record - 25 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.2 feet.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 oblong to obovate leaflets. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The greenish-white to white flowers appear on terminal clusters during spring.
They are followed by deep-lobed, 5-parted, woody capsule.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 in partial to full shade on alkaline, well drained soil. It is both tolerant of clay and sand. It is very heat tolerant and moderately drought tolerant.

Saturday, March 12, 2016

Coral Bean

Erythrina

* historical archive photo


Erythrina abyssinica ( Red Hot Poker Tree )
A dense, spreading, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 50 x 60 feet. It is usually slow growing but has been known to reach as much as 13 x 13 feet in a single year. It is native to tropical Africa.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 leaflets, up to 8 x 8 inches in size. The foliage is bright green.
The scarlet-red flowers are borne on dense, terminal racemes.
The branches are spiny.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 in partial shade on very acidic, well drained soil on a protected site.

Erythrina acanthocarpa ( Tambookie Thorn )
A very attractive, upright deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 6.5 feet, that is native to the Cape Region of South Africa. The entire shrub originates from a large tuberous root.
The leaves are composed of leaflets up to 1 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is blue-green.
The showy, scarlet-red ( tipped bright green ) flowers are borne on clusters during late spring into early summer.
They are followed by prickly pods.
The stems are thorny.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, it is easy to grow from seed but not cuttings.

Erythrina americana
A small tree, reaching a maximum size of 42 x 58 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet. It is native to Mexico.
The flowers are orangish-red.

Erythrina berteroana
A small tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 23 feet.
The leaves are composed of leaflets, up to 7 x 5 ( rarely over 5 ) inches in size.
Hardy zones 11 to 12, it requires 40 + inches of average yearly rainfall.

Erythrina x bidwillii ( Bidwill Coral Tree )
The hybrid between Erythrina crista-galli & E. herbacea. It is a woody-based perennial in mild temperate climates, reaching up to 8 x 8 + feet. In the tropics it forms a fast growing, evergreen tree to as much as 25 x 50 feet.
The trifoliate leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of 3 leaflets. The foliage is bright to mid green.
The showy, intense scarlet-red flowers, up to 2 inches long, are borne on dense clusters up to 36 ( rarely over 18 ) inches in length. In mild climates, the flowers appear mid-spring into early summer. In regions where it is a perennial, it blooms mid-summer into early autumn. The flowers attract hummingbirds.
The stems are often prickly.
Hardy zones 9b to 12 as a tree ( if becomes perennial at 25 F but may be grown as far north as zone 7 on protected sites ). It requires full sun on a well drained soil. In cooler climates it should be planted on a warm sunny site such as a south facing wall and mulched deeply during the first winter.

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC


Erythrina caffra ( Kaffirboom )
A fast growing, dense, massive, spreading, semi-evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 100 x 60 ( rarely over 55 x 50 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. It is native to South Africa. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 leaflets, up to 7 x 7 inches in size. The foliage is bright green.
The intense orange-red flowers are borne on dense, terminal racemes, up to 6 x 6 inches in size. They appear with the emerging foliage during late spring into early summer.
The orangish bark is smooth. The branches are often thorny.
Hardy zones 9 to 11. It is very drought tolerant.

Erythrina chiapasana
A deciduous small tree, reaching a maximum height of 30 feet, that is native to scrubby forest in mountains from southern Mexico to Guatemala.
The narrow, deep red flower are borne on upright clusters from mid-winter to mid-spring before the foliage emerges. The trunk and branches are very prickly.
Hardy zones 9 to 11.

Erythrina coralloides ( Naked Coral Tree )
A fast growing, upright, deciduous, small tree, reaching a maximum size of 30 x 40 feet, that is native from far southern Arizona to Oaxaca State in Mexico. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 8 years - 15 x 15 feet. It makes a great, shade or patio tree.
The leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are composed of heart-shaped leaflets, up to 4.5 inches in length. The foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The hairy, intense deep red flowers, up to 2 inches in length, are borne on racemes, up to 12 inches long. They appear mid-spring into early summer after the foliage drops.
They are followed by pods, up to 4 inches in length, that contain scarlet-red beans inside.
The trunk and branches are prickly.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 ( tolerates as low as 20 F ). It may be grown in zone 8 as a perennial.

Erythrina crista-galli ( Corkspur Coral Tree )
A fast growing, massive, deciduous to evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 100 x 100 ( rarely over 55 x 50 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 6.6 feet. It is native to South Africa. Older trees are very often gnarled in appearance. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 8 ( rarely over 3.5 ) feet. Older trees produce dense shade. It is moderately long-lived, persisting up to 140 years or more. The largest in California is at the Sacramento State Capital.
The leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of leaflets, up to 6 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in length.
The orangish-red flowers, up to 2.5 inches in length, are composed of racemes up to 28 inches in length, during spring and summer, often continuing sporadically until late autumn.
The bark is reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 12, it is very drought tolerant but is not salt tolerant. It often puts so much energy into blooming that dieback occurs after..resulting in hard cutting back of the tree. Soak seeds in water for 48 hours before planting.

Erythrina falcata ( Brazilian Coral Tree )
A medium-sized tree, that is native to the Atlantic Rainforest region of Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. Some records include: largest on record - 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The pinkish-red flowers are borne on racemes.

Erythrina flabelliformis ( Southwestern Coral Bean )
A spiny, deciduous, large shrub or small tree, reaching a maximum size of 15 x 12 feet, that is native to the southwestern U.S. ( southern Arizona and southern New Mexico ). Some records include: largest on record - 50 x 18 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 broad-triangular leaflets, up to 3 x 4.5 inches in size. The foliage is gray-green.
The scarlet-red flowers, up to 4 inches in length, are borne on showy, large clusters during spring.
They are followed by leathery pods up to 10 inches in length, that enclose the bright red seeds. The seeds are poisonous and absolutely should never be eaten.
Hardy zones 9b to 10 ( the stems freeze at 24 F ).

Erythrina fusca ( Purple Coral Tree )
A fast growing, deciduous tree, reaching around 60 feet, that is native to tropical Africa, Madagascar, tropical southeast Asia and northern Australia. Some records include: largest on record - 85 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
The leaves are composed of leaflets up to 5.5 x 5 inches in size. The flowers are very attractive to hummingbirds, typical of Erythrina.
The beige to orange flowers are borne in clusters up to 10 inches long.
They are followed by pods, up to 8 inches in length, that include deep brown seeds.
The olive-brown trunk and branches are spiny.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 ( 8 & 9 as a perennial ). It is tolerant of flooding, salt air and water.

Erythrina herbacea ( Coral Bean )
A shrubby perennial, reaching up to 10 ( rarely over 5 ) feet in height, that is native to sandy woods, wet meadows and swamp forests of the southeastern U.S. ( from central Texas to North Carolina; south to southern Florida...also scattered in Oklahoma ) and Mexico. In mild climates, especially in Mexico, it may become a large shrub to small tree, up to 20 feet in height. Some records include: 2 years - 9 x 8 feet; largest on record - 32 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.1 foot. Where it is a perennial, the rootstock is very large and woody.
The leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of 3 broadly-triangular leaflets, up to 5 inches in length. The bright green foliage persists late during autumn. The leafstalks are prickly.
The intense scarlet-red, tubular flowers, up to 3 inches long, are borne on plumes over a period lasting a few months during mid to late summer.
They are followed by leathery pods, up to 6 inches in length, that contain scarlet-red seeds.
The stems are green.
Hardy zones 6 or 7 to 10 ( perennial north of 10 ) in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil. In zone 6, it should be planted on a very protected site such as a south facing wall and mulched deeply during winter. It is very drought tolerant and moderately salt tolerant. Cut to ground during very early spring if winter damage occurs. It is easy to grow from seed which make a good 1 gallon size plant in as little as 8 weeks.

* photos taken by Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Erythrina humeana ( Natal Coral Tree )
A deciduous ( evergreen in tropics ), small tree reaching a maximum size of 40 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It is moderate growing, rarely to as much as 3.5 feet per year.
The leaves are composed of leaflets, up to 8 ( rarely over 5 ) inches in length. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The scarlet-red, tubular flowers, up to 3 inches long, are borne on narrow, dense, terminal racemes, up to 24 inches in length, during summer.
They are followed by purple to black pods.
The stems and pale gray trunk are prickly.
Hardy zones 9 to 11.

Erythrina latissima ( Broad-leaved coral tree )
A slow growing tree, reaching a maximum height of 23 feet, that is native to eastern Africa. It makes a great patio tree.
The leaves are composed of leaflets up to 10 x 13 inches in size. The foliage is woolly at first.
The intense orange-red to scarlet-red flowers appear winter into early summer.
They are followed by pods that contain orange-red and black seeds.
The bark is corky and fissured.
Hardy zones 10 to 12.

Erythrina lysistemon ( Transvaal Kaffirboom )
A fast growing, semi-evergreen tree that is native to eastern and southern Africa. Some records include: 2 years - 6 feet; 4 years - 8 feet; largest on record - 60 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It makes an excellent street tree.
The pinnate leaves, up to 9 inches in length, are composed of ovate leaflets, up to 7 x 7 inches in size.
The intense scarlet-red flowers are borne on compact, terminal racemes up to 8 inches in length, during summer.
They are followed by narrow, woody pods that contain orangish-red seeds.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 ( tolerating as low as 20 F ), it hate wet soil. Extremely heat tolerant, it even thrives in Yuma, Arizona.

Erythrina poeppigiana
A very fast growing ( up to 4 feet per year ), large tree that is native to Central America and South America. Some records include: largest on record - 120 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet.
The leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of leaflets, up to 8 x 8 inches in size.
The flowers are borne on clusters, up to 8 inches in length.
The bark is grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 on acidic soil, it requires 40 + inches of average yearly rainfall and is tolerant of wet soil.

Erythrina sandwicensis ( Wiliwili )
A fast growing, small tree, native to dry rainshadow forests of Hawaii and Tahiti. Some records include: first year - 4 feet; largest on record - 100 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. It is endangered in the wild.
The leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of leaflets up to 4 x 6 inches in size.
The flowers, up to 2 inches long, are white to orangish-yellow.
The trunk and branches are covered in black spines.
Hardy zones 10 to 12, requiring 20 + inches of average yearly rainfall. It is drought and wind tolerant but competes poorly with turf grass. The seeds should be soaked in water for several hours before sowing. The sprouts appear in a week and the initial growth is fast.

Erythrina schliebenii
One of the worlds rarest trees; fewer than 50 trees remain in its native southeastern Tanzania.

Erythrina speciosa
A fast growing, erect, bushy, deciduous, small tree, that is native to the Caribbean and Brazil.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 leaflets, up to 8 x 9 inches in size.
The hairy, deep red flowers are borne on racemes during spring. The flowers are very attractive to hummingbirds.
The stems are prickly.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 ( tolerating as low as 25 F ) in partial shade.

Erythrina stricta ( Straight Coral Bean )
A large tree, reaching a maximum size of 120 x 40 ( rarely over 40 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It is native to Nepal, Tibet, India and Yunnan & Guangxi Provinces of China. It is also native to Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of broadly-triangular to nearly rounded leaflets up to 7.5 x 10.5 inches in size.
The red flowers, up to 1.8 inches long, are borne on racemes up to 6 inches in length, during mid-spring to mid-summer.
They are followed by pods up to 5 x 0.6 inches in size.
Hardy zones 9 to 10.

Erythrina suberosa
A fast growing, medium-sized tree, reaching up to 50 feet. Some records include: 40 years - trunk diameter of 3.3 feet; fastest growth rate - 0.5 inch diameter increase per year.
The leaves are composed of 3 leaflets, up to 8 x 8 inches in size.
Hardy zone 11 ( tolerating 36 F ). It is not prone to insect pests or disease. The roots fix their own nitrogen.

* photo taken on Jan 2007 in Santiago, Chile


Erythrina x sykesii
A fast growing, domed, deciduous, small tree, reaching a maximum size of 60 x 60 feet.
The leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are composed of leaflets, up to 8 inches in length.
The scarlet-red flowers are borne winter into spring.
The trunk and branches are armed with curved prickles.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 ( tolerating as low as 20 F ), only lesser branches are killed at 18 F with the main trunk and roots being somewhat hardier. It is unfortunately brittle and can break apart easily during storms. It an be grown from cuttings and is very tolerant of salt air and poor soil.

* photo of unknown internet source


Erythrina variegata ( Indian Coral Bean )
A very fast growing, sturdy, dense, domed and often gnarled, medium-sized tree that is native to tropical east Africa, India, far southeastern China, southeast Asia and the Philippines. Some records include: largest on record - 90 x 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. Short-lived, it can sometimes persist as long as 110 years. Some records include: 1st year - 12 x 3.5 feet during the first year from unrooted cuttings; 3 years - 25 feet; 15 years - trunk diameter of 2 feet; 20 years - 66 feet. It makes a great shade tree.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 broadly-ovate to nearly rounded leaflets, up to 12 x 12 inches in size. The leaf rachis is up to 8 inches in length. The mid-green foliage is often variegated with yellow and bright green.
The scarlet-red ( rarely white ) flowers, up to 2.8 inches long, are borne on dense, terminal clusters, up to 10 inches long, during winter.
The bark is gray-green. The branches are armed with large prickles.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. It is very drought and salt tolerant, it can also tolerate up to 2 weeks of flooding.

* photo taken on Jan 11 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida

* photos taken on Nov 2009 in Deerfield Beach, Florida
* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Alba'
White flowers; otherwise identical to species.

Erythrina velutina
A large spreading tree that is native to Hispanolia and tropical South America. Some records include: largest on record: trunk diameter of 3.8 feet at 6 feet above huge butressed base.

Erythrina vespertilio ( Bat's Wing Coral Bean )
A fast growing, upright, narrow, large, deciduous tree that is native to tropical northern Australia. Some records include: largest on record - 100 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 pointed, wedge-shaped leaflets up to 8 x 5 inches in size. They appear during spring and early summer after the foliage drops.
The scarlet-red flowers, up to 1.5 inches long, are borne on loose terminal racemes up to 10 inches in length.
The rough bark is whitish-gray. The branches are prickly.
It was used as a sedative by the Australian aboriginals.
Hardy zones 9 to 12

Erythrina zeyheri ( Prickly Cardinal )
A small shrub, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet, that is native to South Africa. It originated from a massive root stock.
The leaves are composed of diamond-shaped leaflets, up to 10 x 10 inches in size. The deeply-veined foliage is thorny beneath.
The tubular red flowers are borne on racemes.
They are followed by smooth woody beans that contain orange-red seeds.
Hardy zones 8b to 12.

Saturday, January 23, 2016

Prunus - Cherries & Plums ( Part 2 )

Continued from Prunus - Cherries & Plums ( Part 1 )

Prunus napaulensis ( Nepal Cherry )
A medium-sized, deciduous tree native to mountains of Nepal that is related to Prunus cornuta. Some records include: 5 years - 9 feet; largest on record - trunk diameter of 3.2 feet.
The finely-toothed, narrowly-elliptical leaves are up to 7 x 2 inches in size.
The white flowers are borne on upright spikes.
Hardy zones 7 to 9, preferring a cool maritime climate.

Prunus nigra ( Canada Plum )
A fast growing, small, upright, deciduous tree reaching up to 25 feet that is native to cooler parts of North America ( from Winnipeg, Manitoba to Quebec, Maine and Newfoundland, south to Iowa to Mich, all southern Ontario to New York State with additional local populations found in Illinois and Indiana ). Some records include: largest on record - 62 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.7 feet. The maximum lifespan of the Canada Plum is about 250 years, though 65 years is generally considered old.
The coarsely-toothed leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and paler, hairy below; turning to red during autumn.
The fragrant flowers, up to 1.3 inches in width can be either white or pink ( more often pink )/ They are borne in umbels of 3 or 4 during early spring either before or with the emerging foliage.
They are followed by rounded, yellow fleshed, orange-red or less often yellow fruit up to 1.5 inches in width. The fruits are excellent eaten fresh or dried.
The bark is gray-brown and peels off in layers.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 and prefers moist soil. Very tolerant of harsh climates including the Canadian Prairies. Flood tolerant but hates compaction and is prone to canker disease.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

'Princess Kay'
neat, upright tree form with double white flowers originating in northern Minnesota. Some records include: 5 years - 11 x 6 feet.
The bark is dark.

Prunus x nigrella 'Muckle" ( Muckle Plum )
A large, upright shrub reaching 12 feet or more, that is the hybrid between Prunus nigra and P. tenella. The largest on record is 17 x 10 feet. The foliage turns an attractive orange-red in autumn and the flowers in spring are bright pink.

Prunus nipponica ( Japanese Alpine Cherry )
A small, deciduous tree, reaching up to 20 feet or rarely more, that is native to the mountains of northern & central Japan. Some records include: largest on record - 35 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.2 feet @ Willowwood Arboretum in New Jersey.
The coarsely-toothed, obovate leaves are up to 8 x 2 ( rarely over 4.5 ) inches in size. The foliage is mid to deep green; often turning intense scarlet-red during autumn.
The pink flowers up to an inch wide are borne in small clusters in mid-spring. They are followed by very small, black "cherries".
The bark is dark purplish-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

'Kursar'
Very upright in habit with foliage that turns flaming orange in autumn. Flowers are deep pink.

Prunus occidentalis
A tropical, evergreen member of the Cherry family that is native to the Caribbean. It can become a massive tree reaching over 100 feet. Some records include: 3 years - 8 feet; 10 years - 3 feet; 40 years - 90 feet; largest on record - 170 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.3 feet.
The foliage is green and up to 8 inches in length.
Hardy zones 10 and warmer.

Prunus 'Okame'
A fast growing tree reaching up to 30 feet that is the hybrid between Prunus campanulatus and Prunus incisa. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 12 years - 25 x 20 feet; largest on record - 40 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The leaves up to 3 inches in length, are deep green in summer turning to vivid orange in autumn.
It is the earliest and longest ( 3 weeks ) of all Cherries. The single bright pink flowers are up to an inch across and are borne in clusters of 3, opening from pinkish-red buds before the foliage.
The bark is rich, red brown in color.
Hardy zones 5b to 9; it is heat and very clay tolerant.
'First Lady' originating at the U.S. National Arboretum is a cross of P. 'Okame' back with P. campanulata.
It reaches about equal size, has similar growth rate, flowers, form and equal hardiness.
Its larger, glossy deep green foliage more resembles that of P. campanulata.
The flowers are followed by red cherries up to 0.5 inches across. They provide great food for the birds.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on Mar 5 2012 in Columbia, MD










* photo taken on Apr 15 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 26 2015 in Bel Air, MD


Prunus padus ( European Bird Cherry )
A pyramidal to rounded, medium-sized tree to 50 feet with drooping branch tips, that is a widespread native to northern Eurasia from England to Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 5 years - 16 x 13 feet; 20 years - 37 x 20 feet; largest on record - 112 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 32 inches ( 6 foot stump has been recorded ). This tree can live up to 80 years or more.
It is one of the first trees to leaf out in spring and the taper-pointed, finely-toothed, oval leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size.
They are deep matte green in summer and turn to yellow or red in autumn.
The numerous small white flowers are borne in long racemes, up to 6 inches long, with the foliage during late spring.
They are followed by tiny ( 0.3 inch ), bitter tasting, glossy black "cherries".
The smooth bark is dark gray with darker lenticals.
Hardy zones 1 to 6 and is urban tolerant. It can even be used as a street tree in Fairbanks, Anchorage and Juneau, Alaska.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on Apr 20 2013 in Columbia, MD

* excellent photon link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39521/

'Colorata'
Foliage is red-purple in spring turning to deep green above, reddish below.
The flowers are deep pink instead of white.
* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Commutata'
Flower racemes up to 6 inches in length appear 15 days earlier than average for Prunus padus. Originates in Manchuria.

'Ethel'
Vigorous and extremely hardy, even thriving in much of Alberta, Canada.
Some records include: 5 years - 17 x 14 feet; 6 years - 19 x 14 feet.

'Plena'
Double flowers

'Watereri'
Long, slender, compact, creamy-white, flower racemes up to 8 inches in length.
Purple stems. A vigorous grower.

Prunus pedunculata
Also called Amygdalus pedunculata. A spreading small shrub, reaching a maximum height of 6.5 x 7 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to Russia, most of Mongolia and north-central China.
The coarsely-toothed, obovate or oblong leaves are up to 1.6 x 0.8 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, pale green beneath.
The pink flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, appear during late spring, just before the foliage emerges.
The are followed by deep purplish-red cherries, up to 0.6 inches wide, during mid to late summer.
The branches are grayish-brown to brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun on very well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant and has high potential as a landscape shrub or low hedge in the northern Great Plains and intermountain west.

Prunus pennsylvanica ( Pin Cherry )
A small, colonizer tree reaching up to a typical 25 feet, often forming thickets on recently cleared land. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; largest on record - 110 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet; oldest tree of record - 75 years.
The Pin Cherry is native from British Columbia and the Northwest Territories to Labrador and Newfoundland, south to Montana, Colorado, Iowa to Pennsylvania, locally further souh in Illinois, Indiana and the Appalation Mountains. Its natural range covers most of the Canadian Shield.
The long pointed, narrow, lance shaped leaves, up to 6 x 2 inches in size, emerge early in spring.
The shiny green foliage turns to golden yellow and scarlet red or less often purple in autumn.
The small, 0.5 inch wide flowers are borne in umbels of up to 5 in late spring after the foliage appears.
The acid tasting, scarlet red cherries are up to 0.3 inches in width and ripen in mid summer. Birds heavily consume the fruit.
The branches have many spur branches and the twigs are bright red and shiny.
Young trees have smooth, reddish-brown bark which becomes horizontally broad plated and papery on older trees.
Hardy zones 2 to 5 though not often cultivated except in extreme climates of the far north including Alaska.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2011 in Luzerne Co, PA

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON


Prunus persica ( Peach )
Originally native to China; its actual place of origin is enshrouded in mystery after centuries of cultivation. Typically a small tree to 20 feet; some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 4 years - 11 x 6 feet; largest on record - 60 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet.
The finely-toothed, lance-shaped leaves are up to 9 x 2 ( rarely over 6 ) inches in size. They are purplish at first during spring, turning to glossy deep green in summer then to bronze during autumn.
The large, showy pink or white familiar early spring flowers appear before the foliage.
They are followed by the yellow to red down covered tasty, large, edible round fruits up to 3 inches long.
The twigs are reddish with white, fuzzy buds.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( use hardiest seed source/cultivars only in zone 5 ) in full sun on acidic or alkaline, humus-rich, well drained soil. Kept the ground beneath the tree either bare or better yet mulched in organic matter, turf grass on top of tree roots will slow your Peach trees growth and production considerably. When buying a Peach tree, it is best to buy approx 4 foot tall 1 year bare root trees and plant during early spring while still dormant. It is important to but from a reputable nursery that can guarantee the tree and the rootstock ( Lovell & Siberian C are common ) is true to type and is free of nematodes or viruses. Selecting the right variety can make all the difference between success, failure or a tree that needs more chemicals than it is worth. Peaches thrive over a very large range of climates however different cultivars fare better in some than others. Peaches are self-fertile, not needing multiple trees to produce fruit. Peaches may be prone to peach leaf curl in some regions. Canker is a problem in humid areas, it is recommended to not use canker prone root stock where this is a problem and immediately prune dead wood out of trees where it may occur. White plastic trunk wraps can be used to protect the trunk of peach trees from sunscald. A deep weekly watering is recommended if drought occurs during the time between flowering and the fruit ripening. Propagation of cultivars is from softwood cuttings taken during summer.

* photos taken on Mar 27 2016 in Howard Co., MD
* historical archive photos

* photos taken on Mar 31 2016 in Catonsville, MD


Ornamental Flowering Forms

'Albo Plena' White double flowers.

'Bonfire'
A dwarf, shrubby form, reaching up to 6.5 x 6 feet. Some records include: 3 years - 4.3 feet; 5 years - 5.5 feet.
The attractive foliage is deep red all summer long.
The double, pinkish-red flowers are borne during early spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by tasty small peaches.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

* photo taken on Aug 31 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Corinthian Pink'
Reaching up to 18 x 7 feet and columnar in habit, with foliage that is purple at first, turning to purplish-green.
The flowers vary from white to pink.

'Klare Meyer'
Shrubby in form with double deep pink flowers.

'Pink Cascade'

* photo taken on Mar 22 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Prince Charming'
Similar to species in habit except with double, deep rose-pink flowers.

'Redhaven'
A self-pollinating, regular-sized Peach bearing sweet-tasting, yellow to red skinned fruit. The fragrant flowers are rosy-red in bud, opening to pink.
The leaves turn to yellow during autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

* photos taken on Aug 31 2015 in Elkridge, MD


'Reliance'
Self-fertile, it abundantly bears tasty, yellow, mid-size peaches.
Hardy north to zone 5, it is among the best cultivars for cold climates.

'Rubra'

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


'Royal Red'
Brilliant scarlet red leaves turn red-green in summer.

* photo taken on May 16 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Russels Red'
Double red flowers

'Versicolor
Double white flowers

FRUITING FORMS

'Brighton'
Vigorous and canker resistant.

'Candor'
A hardy variety with good tasting fruits.
It is resistant to leaf curl and highly resistant to bacterial spot and flesh browning.

'Compact Redhaven'
A zone 6 variety with good tasting fruits.
It is resistant to leaf curl and highly resistant to bacterial spot and flesh browning.

'Charlotte'
Very resistant to leaf curl and bacterial canker.
Orange-red, sweet juicy fruit.

'Clayton'
A zone 5 hardy cultivar with good tasting fruits.
It is highly resistant to leaf curl, bacterial spot and flesh browning.

'Halford'
Commonly used as root stock on which other Peaches are grown. It thrives only in mild climates ( zone 8 and warmer ).
It is also longer lived than most rootstocks however can be prone to Peach Tree Borer, Crown Rot and Nematodes.

'Hardired'
A "Nectarine" ( smooth skinned ) with medium sized red fruit. Exceptionally hardy, thriving from zones 5 to 8 and tolerating as low as -30 F. Brown rot and leaf spot resistant which is important since many other cultivars of Nectarines perform badly in humid climates due to brown rot susceptibility.

'Lovell'
Commonly used as root stock on which other Peaches are grown. It thrives in a large range of climates and is more cold hardy than most Peach cultivars.
It is also longer lived than most rootstocks however can be prone to Peach Tree Borer, Crown Rot and Nematodes.

'New Haven'
A zone 6 cultivar with good tasting fruits.
it is resistant to leaf curl, bacterial spot and flesh browning.

'Raritan Rose'
Excellent form, is vigorous, bud hardy and canker and leaf spot resistant.
Large bright red fruit.

'Reliance'
Fast growing and exceptionally hardy, north to zone 4b ( tolerating -25 F ).
The fruit is yellow with some red.

'Rich Haven'
A large, vigorous tree with up to 50 pounds of gold-red fruit per year. Can tolerate -20 F with no damage.

'Siberian C'
Commonly used as root stock on which other Peaches are grown. It is used only where winters are consistently cold such as in the Great Lakes and New England.
It is also longer lived than most rootstocks however can be prone to Peach Tree Borer, Crown Rot and Nematodes.
It is very prone to bacterial canker and should be avoided where this is a problem.

'Veteran'
Cold hardy, to zone 5 with large yellow fruit. Unlike many Peaches; this one is good in cool wet climates such as Seattle, WA.

Prunus pumila ( Sand Cherry )
A small, hardy, groundcover shrub usually only reaching up to 4 feet in height, that is native to North America, from Manitoba to New Brunswick; south to Wyoming to Wisconsin to New Jersey. Some records include: largest on record - 10 x 15 feet.
The leaves are serrated near the tip, and are up to 2 inches in length.
They are gray-green above, bluish below and turn to fiery scarlet red in autumn.
The white flowers are borne in clusters in spring and are followed by edible, small, deep red "cherries".
Hardy zones 2 to 6 and both drought and lime tolerant.

'Catskill'
A cultivar of subspecies depressa, it forms a groundcover shrub reaching up to 2 x 15 feet in size.
The disease resistant foliage is reddish at first, turning to glossy deep green.

* Photo courtesy of USDA NRCS.


subsp 'Depressa'
An attractive groundcover shrub reaching up to 3 x 6 + feet.
The narrow foliage is mid-green above, bluish white below.

* photos taken on July 31 2013 @ Pinery Provincial Park, Grand Bend, Ontario


subsp. 'Susquehanae'
Taller than average for Prunus pumila. The foliage is nearly white beneath and the fruit is smaller. Often found on sand dunes in the wild.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Prunus rufa ( Himalayan Cherry )
A small, deciduous tree native to low lying areas of the Himalayas. The tallest on record is only 28 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 inches.
The leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size.
The small, white to pinkish-white flowers backed by red calyces are borne in spring.
They are followed by tiny, red "cherries"
The younger shoots are covered in a "rusty felt"
Hardy zones 7 to 10

Prunus salicifolia ( Mexican Bird Cherry )
A very fast growing, medium sized, deciduous tree, related to Prunus serotina, that is native to mountains from Mexico to Peru. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 15 feet; largest on record - 80 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The serrate edged, leathery foliage is up to 7 inches in length.
The small, white flowers are borne in loose racemes and are followed by small, sweet, juicy, red "cherries" up to 0.7 inches in width.
Surprisingly hardy in climates far colder in winter than occurs in its native range. Hardy from zones 6 to 10 with reports of surviving -22 F in Massachussetts.
'Equadorian'
Sweet fruits up to 1.5 inches in width.

Prunus salicina ( Japanese Plum )
A small, fast growing tree to 30 feet that is native to Japan and closeby parts of eastern China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; largest on record - 40 x 40 feet.
The oval foliage is heavily though bluntly toothed and up to 5 inches in length.
It is lush deep green in summer and turns red in autumn.
The white flowers are borne in pairs or small clusters in early spring.
They are followed by red fruits up to 3 inches across that are edible though bitter.
The new shoots are red and the attractive bark is smooth and orangish to red-brown.
Hardy zones 4b to 9, one seed source in eastern Asia is reported to tolerate -30 F or possibly even colder into zone 3.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC




'Methley'
A self pollinating tree reaching up to 25 x 25 feet with large, yellow fleshed, purple skinned fruit.

'Purple Heart'
Small, dark purple sweet fruit to 1.5 inches. Hardy to as low as -25 F

'Red Heart'
Heavy crops of large red "Plums" that preserve well.

Prunus sargentii ( Sargent Cherry )
A fast growing, spreading dome-canopied, medium to large sized tree, reaching around 60 feet in height, that is native to Sakhalin & northern Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet with trunk diameter increase of 1 inch; 20 years - 60 x 70 feet; largest on record - 90 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. The Sargent Cherry is longer lived than most Cherries.
The The toothed, pointed, broadly-oval leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The smooth leaves are reddish in spring, turning to glossy deep green above, later turning vivid scarlet-red during autumn.
The pink, frilly flowers up to 2 inches are borne in clusters during mid spring with the emerging foliage.
They are followed by smallish, very dark red fruits, up to 0.5 inches wide, during mid-summer.
The smooth bark is glossy purplish-brown with lenticels.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 and is tolerant of drought and clay, however does not like pollution. Does not grow well in the extreme heat of the southeastern U.S.
Foliage is very prone to Japanese Beetles ( recommended long term treatment is treating entire lawn area with Milky Spore ) but the Sargent Cherry is rarely bothered by disease.
Propagation is from seed during autumn.

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario



'Columnaris'
Narrow columnar form, reaching up to 53 x 26 feet.

'Pink Flair'
Narrow, upright and vase-shaped, reaching up to 25 x 16 feet in 20 years, eventually more.
The foliage is deep green, turning to orangish-red during autumn.
The mid-pink, single flowers are borne during mid spring. It flowers 2 weeks after the species, thus avoiding frost damage.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, it is among the best Flowering Cherries for the northern Great Plains but also thrives in the hot humid Mid Atlantic and parts of the Southeast.

'Rancho'
Larger, deeper pink flowers on a narrower shaped tree.

Prunus x schmittii
A vigorous, narrow, upright small tree reaching up to 40 feet or more, that is the hybrid between Prunus avium and P. canescens. Some records include: largest on record - 70 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 26 inches.
The leaves have a finely serrated margin and taper to a fine point. They are up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and paler beneath.
The pale pink flowers are up to an inch in width.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Prunus scopulorum
A strongly upright tree reaching up to 30 feet in height that is native to China.
Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 12 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The very fragrant flowers that are white with a pink tinge are borne in spring in clusters. They are followed by small red fruits.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Prunus serotina ( Black Cherry )
A large, deciduous tree native to eastern North America ( from eastern North Dakota to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to southern Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to eastern Texas to central Florida...subspecies native to most of Arizona to western Texas as well as in the Edwards Plateau of central Texas ) reaching up to 80 feet or more. Some records include: first year from seed - 24 inches; fastest recorded growth rate - 8 feet with trunk diameter increase of 3 inches; 3 years - 6 inch trunk diameter; 4 years - 18 x 12 feet; 20 years - 66 x 33 feet; largest on record - 170 x 130 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet. It is moderately long-lived but rarely exceeds 170 years.
The finely-toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 2 or rarely 6.6 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is reddish at first turning to glossy, mid-green above and light green beneath. The foliage turns yellow and orange red, late in autumn. As with other trees in the Prunus family, this tree should not be planted where livestock graze as the foliage can cause poisoning.
The small ( 0.3 inch ) white flowers are borne in pendulous racemes up to 6 inches in length in late spring after the foliage has already emerged.
The flowers are followed by purplish-black, rounded fruit up to 0.3 inches wide hat ripen in late summer. The fruits are highly valued by birds but due to their small size are generally ignored by people. The taste varied from tree to tree from sour to sweet.
The twigs zig-zag and are slender.
The bark is smooth and dark gray in young trees later becoming dark gray and scaly.
The hard, reddish, finely grained wood is very valuable in the making of furniture.
Black Cherry is among the most prized North American timbers after Black Walnut.
The wood burns well with aromatic smoke, releasing around 20 Btu per cord.
Hardy zones 3 to 9. This tree is unfortunately the primary host for the Tent Caterpillar.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Guelph, Ontario

* photo taken on August 4 2010 @ Woodlands Arboretum, Clinton, ON

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 3 2012 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on June 3 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* photos taken on May 9 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

Paul S. Carter @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on July 15 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on Oct 19 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* historical archive photos

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39524/

'Cartilaginia'
large foliage

'Pendula'
weeping habit

* historic archive photo


Prunus serrula ( Tibetan Cherry )
A deciduous, medium-size tree reaching up to 40 feet that is native to western China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 60 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The finely-toothed, taper-pointed, oval leaves are up to 5 x 1.5 ( rarely over 3 ) inches in size. The deep green foliage, often turns attractive orange and red during autumn ( some trees do quite the opposite and barely put on any show of color during the fall ).
The white flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne in umbels of 1 to 4 during mid-spring with the emerging foliage.
They are followed by small, scarlet-red "cherries" up to 0.5 x 0.5 inches in size, during late summer.
It is typically grown for its bark which is among the most beautiful of all trees. The mahogany-red bark peels in horizontal strips to reveal even shinier, more intense colored bark beneath.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

Prunus serrulata ( Japanese Flowering Cherry )
Also called Prunus lannesiana & Prunus jamasakura. A fast growing, medium-size to large tree, reaching up to 50 + feet, that is native to northeastern China, Korea & Japan. Some records include: largest on record - 120 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 feet. Trees have been known to live as long as 500 years or more.
The toothed, pointed-oval leaves are up to 8 x 3.5 ( rarely over 6 ) inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, pale green beneath; often turning to orange & red during autumn. The foliage is often bronze-red at first during spring.
The very showy, white to pink flowers, up to 1.3 inches wide, appear during mid-spring.
They are followed in by small, deep purple fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide. The fruits rarely appear on most cultivars.
The smooth bark is purplish-brown with lenticels in horizontal rows.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( possibly even 3 for seed source from Heilongjiang Province, China ) in full sun on most well drained soils. Alkaline tolerant. The cultivars often grow poorly south of zone 7 when grafted on root stock that isn't very heat tolerant. Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken in summer. The species can be sown from seed during autumn.

* photo taken on June 7 2012 in Columbia, MD

'Amanogawa'
Narrow and upright in habit, Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 5 years - 13 x 3 feet; 20 years - 33 x 10 feet; largest on record being 37 x 31 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The finely-toothed, oval leaves are coppery bronze at first, turning to deep green in summer then to red or yellow in autumn.
The fragrant, large, pale pink, double flowers open before or with the emerging foliage in mid spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 and propagated by softwood cuttings in summer.

'Hokusai'
A vigorous, broad spreading tree. Some records include: 20 years - 27 feet; largest on record is 37 x 57 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The oval,leathery foliage, to 5 x 2 inches, is bronze at first turning to deep green then to brilliant orange and red in autumn.
The semi-double flowers, up to 2 inches across, appear in mid spring and last over a long season. They are mid pink in bud and open to soft light pink.

'Kansan' ( Kwanzan Cherry )
A medium size tree to 40 feet or more with a strongly upright, vase shape growth habit when young, later becoming spreading. Some records include: 20 years - 37 feet; 53 years - 47 x 74 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.8 feet; largest on record - 53 x 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. Very large trees grow at Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA.
The leaves are large, to 6 x 3 inches.
The foliage turns vivid colors in autumn.
The large ( up to 2.3 inch wide ), bright pink double flowers are borne in clusters.

* photos taken on April 7 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on April 10 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on April 13 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken in Columbia, MD on April 23 2010

* photos taken on April 9 2012 in Columbia, MD



* photos taken on June 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 28 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on May 3 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 6 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on May 3 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Kiku-Shidare' ( Cheal's Weeping Cherry )
Also called 'Kiku-Shidare-Zakura'. Weeping growth habit, reaching up to 23 x 23 feet in 20 years, with maturity being about 33 x 22 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches. Some records include: largest on record - 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. Moderately long-lived, it can live for up to 215 years in age.
The flowers are rose-pink and double.
The lance shaped foliage is bronzed bright green in spring turning to deep green.
The very double, large flowers are deep pink and are clustered along the weeping branches in mid spring.
Hardy zone 6 to 8

'Okumiyako'
Flat crowned tree. The large, double white flowers are borne from pink buds.

'Pandora'
Vigorous, upright and broadly vase shaped in habit. Largest on record is 51 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 32 inches. It is the hybrid between Prunus x yedoensis & P. subhirtella 'Ascendens Rosea'.
The oval foliage is bronze-red at first turning to deep green in summer then to brilliant orange and red in autumn.
The abundant, large pale pink single flowers are borne in early spring.
The bark is dark brown and shiny.
Hardy zone 6 to 8

'Pink Perfection'
A medium size vase shaped tree with a rounded crown.
Some records include: 20 years - 20 feet; largest on record - 30 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The toothed, oval foliage is bronze at first, turning to deep green in summer then to brilliant orange-red in autumn.
The large, double flowers are deep pink in bud, opening to light rose-pink.
They are carried on long stalked drooping clusters.
Hardy zone 6 to 8.

'Royal Burgundy'
Very similar to the Kwanzan Cherry but with purplish-black foliage. The foliage turns to orange and red during autumn.
Reaches up to 25 x 24 feet.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Schmidsu Sakura'
A flat-crowned tree, reaching up to 20 x 33 feet, with foliage that turns to red in autumn.
The large, frilly, double, white flowers are borne during late spring.

'Shirofugen'
A vigorous, wide spreading, flat crowned tree with drooping branches. Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 33 inches.
The oval leaves are up to 5 inches in length. The foliage is bronze-red at first, turning to deep green in summer then to brilliant orange-red in autumn.
The large, double flowers, up to 2.3 inches in width are pink in bud opening white then fading to light pink in late spring. The blooms appear late and lasts longer than almost any other Cherry.
Hardy zone 5 to 7

'Shirotae' ( Mt. Fuji Cherry )
A moderate growing, somewhat arching, broadly-spreading tree
Largest on record - 37 x 65 feet with a trunk diameter of 33 inches; 34 years - 32 x 63 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches; 7 years - 27 x 26 feet with a diameter of 7.5 inches.
The oval leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are bright green in spring, turning to deep green in summer then to golden yellow or sometimes red in autumn.
The fragrant, single to semi-double, very large ( 2 inch ), white flowers are massed during mid spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 and propagated by softwood cuttings in summer.

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Shogetsu'
A fast growing, flat crowned wide spreading tree.
Some records include: 20 years - 23 feet; largest on record - 27 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 26 inches.
The oval leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are bright green at first, turning to deep green then to brilliant orange and red in autumn.
The large, double flowers up to 2 inches across, are borne in drooping clusters in late spring. They are pink in bud opening to light pink.
Hardy zone 5 to 7

'Shogun'
Reaches up to 27 feet

'Snowgoose'
to 20 x 20 feet. Some records include: largest on record - 30 feet.
White flowers.

'Snow Fountains'

* photos taken on Mar 29 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Tai Haku' ( Great White Cherry )
A very vigorous broad spreading tree, reaching up to 40 x 27 feet in 20 years. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 47 feet with a trunk diameter of 28 inches.
The finely-toothed leaves are up to 8 x 4 or rarely 9.3 x 5 inches.
The foliage is coppery-bronze at first turning to deep green then to golden-yellow and red in autumn.
The very large, fragrant, white, single flowers are up to 3.2 inches in width.
Hardy zone 4 to 8

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC




'Ukon'
A vigorous, horizontally spreading, vase shaped tree.
Reaches up to 33 feet in height. Some records include: 20 years - 23 feet; largest on record is 42 x 50 feet with trunk diameter of 28 inches.
The leaves, up to 6 x 2.7 inches in size, are bronze in spring, turning to deep green then to red or purple in autumn.
Flowers are semi-double, fragrant, up to 1.7 inches, greenish yellow and are massed in clusters.
Hardy zones 5 to 6 and propagated by softwood cuttings in summer.

'Umineko'
A narrow, erect tree reaching up to 20 x 10 feet in 20 years, and an eventual maximum size of 27 x 34 feet. The foliage turns attractive red in autumn. The flowers are white.

'Yae-murasaki'
A slow growing, broad spreading tree, reaching a maximum size of 15 x 25 feet.
The toothed, oval leaves are coppery red at first, turning to deep green.
The foliage turns intense orange-red during autumn.
The abundant, semi-double flowers borne during mid spring are red in bud, opening to pinkish-purple.
Hardy zones 6 to 8

Prunus sibirica ( Siberian Almond )
Also called Armeniaca sibirica. A spreading, large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum height of 17 x 17 ( rarely over 9 ) feet, that is native to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, north-central China, Manchuria and Korea.
The minutely-toothed leaves, up to 4 x 3 inches in size, are ovate to nearly rounded. The foliage is blue-green.
The white to pinkish-white flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, appear during early spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by a yellow to dark orange fruit, up to 1 x 1 inch in size, during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun on well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant. It is very drought tolerant and has high potential as a fruit plant, landscape shrub or low screen in the northern Great Plains and intermountain west.

Prunus x sieboldii
A slow growing, small deciduous tree reaching up to 20 feet that is the natural hybrid between Prunus speciosa and P. apetala. The largest on record is - 30 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The heavily serrated foliage is up to 5 inches in length and densely downy beneath.
The pink, semi-double flowers up to 2 inches in width are borne in small clusters.
The stems are shiny.
Hardy zones 5 to 9
'Caespitosa'
Reaches up to 20 feet with foliage that is bronze in spring and red in autumn. Flowers are bright pink.

Prunus simonii ( Apricot Plum )
A moderate growing large shrub to small tree reaching up to 18 feet that is native to Hebei Province in eastern China. Some records include: 27 years - 35 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 16 feet which is also the largest on record.
The minutely-toothed, oblong leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above. bright green beneath; turning to orange in autumn.
The white flowers, up to 0.8 inches wide, are borne in clusters of 2 or 3, during late spring either just before or with the emerging foliage.
They are followed by rounded, red "plums", up to 2.3 ( rarely over 1.5 ) inches in width, during mid-summer. It is cultivated for its edible fruits throughout a large portion of northern China.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

Prunus sogdiana ( Sogdian Plum )
Also called Prunus cerasifera var sogdiana, it forms a small tree, reaching a maximum size of 27 x 30 feet, that is native to Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan & Xinjiang Province of northwestern China.
The toothed, narrow-elliptic leaves, up to 2 x 1.6 inches in size are deep green above, light green beneath. The foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The abundant, 5-petalled, white flowers up to 0.8 inches wide, are borne in dense clusters during early spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by edible, small "Plums" up to 2 inches across that are either red or blue. The fruits are good for making wine, juices and jellies.
The bark is gray and smooth, with horizontal lenticals, becoming rougher in very old trees.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( est ) in full sun on well drained soil. It is heat loving, cold and drought tolerant. Pruning is often needed when young, especially training to a single leader and feathering since this tree is prone to suckering from both the trunk and the roots.

Prunus speciosa ( Oshimo Cherry )
Also called Prunus lannesiana. A wide-spreading tree that is native to China though also cultivated in Japan for centuries. Some records include: 20 years - 17 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 47 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.2 feet. Moderately long-lived, it can persist as long as 800 years.
The toothed, oval leaves are up to 4 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is bronze at first, turning to mid-green.
The pure white flowers are borne during early spring with the emerging foliage. Hardy zones 6 to 8.

Prunus spinosa ( Blackthorn )
A dense, suckering, rounded, large shrub or small tree to 20 feet, that is native to much of Europe, western Asia and northern Africa. Some records include: 20 years - 23 x 20 feet; largest on record - 40 x 25 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet. The Blackthorn can live up to 60 years or more. Great for screening and informal hedging. It often eventually spreads to form dense thickets.
The leathery, oval to oblong leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, are deep green in color.
The white flowers to 0.7 inches are borne in early spring, before the foliage.
The bitter-tasting, blue-black, rounded "Plums" are up to 0.6 inches in length.
The rough bark is very dark gray to nearly black. The stems are very thorny.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( 3a estimate for southwest Siberian seed source ) in full sun on well drained soil. It thrives on poor soil, is wind and salt breeze tolerant ( great for coastal areas ) and is excellent for hedging and screens. Prune after flowering.
Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during summer.

* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39513/

* excellent video found on youtube

'Plena'
Similar except for double flowers.

* historic archive photo


'Purpurea'
Similar, except the foliage is red in spring, later turning to purple. The flowers are pink.

Prunus spinosissima
A thorny, divaricate-stemmed, large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 10 x 10 feet, that is native to central Asia, northern Iran and Afghanistan where it is rare. It is used to stabilize sand dunes in its native range.
The toothed, oblanceolate to narrow-elliptical leaves, up to 1.2 x 0.2 inches in size, are deep green.
The abundant, pink flowers, up to 0.8 inches wide, are borne during spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by oval or rounded fruits, up to 0.8 inches in length.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( 5 on protected sites ) in full sun on dry, well drained soil. It is very heat and drought tolerant.

Prunus subcordata ( Klamath Plum )
A small, deciduous, round canopied tree native from the Portland, Oregon south in valleys into central California, often reaching 20 feet with stiff, horizontal branches. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 40 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. It often forms thickets in the wild.
The finely serrate margined leaves are heart shaped to rounded and up to 3 x 2 inches. They turn to scarlet in autumn.
The small, white flowers are up to 0.7 inches in width and are bornein umbels of 2 to 4 in early spring before the foliage emerges.
The tart tasting, oval, fruit, up to 1.3 inches long are deep purplish-red and ripen in late summer. The fruits vary in taste, but in regions with good soil and abundant rainfall, can be quite tasty and good eaten fresh or dried.
The branches have many spurs which often end in a thorn.
The bark is gray brown, scaly and fissured.
The buds are reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in sun or partial shade and is drought tolerant. I personally do not know of any Klamath Plums growing in the eastern U.S.

Prunus subhirtella ( Higan Cherry )
A fast growing, broad to flat topped, medium- size to large tree to 50 feet or sometimes much more, that is native to Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; largest on record - 100 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 12.5 feet; largest in Pennsylvania - 65 x 84 x 6 feet. There are reports of trees surviving as long as 1200 years in Japan.
The toothed, narrow-elliptical leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The luxuriant foliage is bright green at first, later turning to deep green. The foliage often turns to orange or red during autumn.
The small white or pink flowers are borne in clusters of 2 to 5 during early spring before the foliage emerges. They are later replaced by tiny, blackish-purple "cherries", up to 0.3 inches wide, during early summer.
The bark on older trees is fissured and dark grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil. Heat, clay and alkaline soil tolerant.
Cultivars are propagated from softwood cuttings taken during summer.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39519/

'Autumnalis'
Flowers commonly open in autumn then randomly during warm spells in winter then heavily in early spring.

* photo taken on April 6 2010 in Clarksville, MD


* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Hally Jolivette'
A rounded medium-sized tree, reaching up to 40 x 40 feet.
The double flowers are pink in bud, opening to white.

'Pendula' ( Weeping Higan Cherry )
Weeping in habit, reaching up to 50 feet in height with light pink flowers.
Some records include: largest on record - 65 x 84 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 ( over 5.5 feet ex. rare ) feet. Very long-lived, it is possible for these trees to persist as long as 1000 years.


* photo taken on March 2010 in Laurel, MD

* photo taken on April 6 2010 in Clarksville, MD


* photos taken on Apr 20 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Pendula Rosea'
Similar to 'Pendula' but with pink flowers.

* photos taken on Mar 22 2012 in Howard Co., MD



'Pendula Rubra'
Similar to 'Pendula' except with flowers that are red in bud, opening to deep pink.

'Shidare Higan'
Similar to 'Pendula' but with lighter color flowers

* Photos taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum









'Stellata'
Similar to P. subhirtella with the same size and habit.
The deep green foliage turns to yellow in autumn.
The single, pink flowers are borne in massed clusters during early to mid spring.

Prunus takeshimensis ( Takesimense Cherry )
A very fast growing, medium-size tree of high ornamental value, that is native to Korea. Some records include: 22 years - 40 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot; fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet.
The deeply-veind, sharply-toothed, obovate leaves are mid-green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The white flowers are borne on dense clusters during early spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( est ). It is flood tolerant and often grows on floodplains in its natural range.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Prunus tenella ( Dwarf Russian Almond )
A bushy, upright deciduous shrub, that can reach a maximum size of 8 x 8 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native from central Europe to northeastern Asia. It is endangered in the Czech Republic.
The narrowly-oval leaves, up to 4 x 1 inch in size, are glossy deep green above, pale green beneath.
The profuse, bright pink to deep pink-red flowers, up to 0.5 inches across, are borne along the stems during early spring before the foliage. It is sometimes mistakingly thought to be Chaenomeles ( Flowering Quince ) however blooms later with smaller, dull yellow fruit.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. Very drought tolerant. It is prone to Black Knot Fungus in humid climates. Prune immediately after blooming as it blooms on old wood.
Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during summer or seed sown during fall.

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* photo taken on May 8 2015 in Columbia, MD

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39535/

var georgica
Much larger in size, reaching a maximum of 20 feet. The leaves and white flowers are also larger.

'Fire Hill'
Larger, reaching up to 10 feet in height, with red flowers.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Columbia


'Regal'

* Photos courtesy of USDA NRCS.


Prunus tomentosa ( Nanking Cherry )
A fast growing, dense shrub, reaching up to 10 feet or more, that is a widespread native of temperate China including Manchuria. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 17 x 17 feet.
The double-toothed, elliptical leaves, up to 3.5 x 1.5 inches in size, are deeply-veined and somewhat puckered. The foliage is deep green above and downy gray below.
The showy, abundant, pale pink ( less often white ) flowers, up to an inch wide are borne singly or in pairs during mid-spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by tasty, downy, red "cherries", up to 0.5 inches wide, during early summer. Seedlings can bear fruit in as little as 3 years. 2 or more plants in close proximity are required for best fruit production. Fruit production can be very abundant on a well grown Nanking Cherry, even hiding the stems.
The young stems are also downy. Older stems have shiny red-brown exfoliating bark.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun to partial shade. It grows well in harsh climates, even Manitoba and interior Alaska.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* historical archive photo

* photos taken on Mar 20 2015 in Bel Air, MD

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id217419/
http://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/131299.html

Prunus triloba ( Dwarf Flowering Almond )
A large, dense shrub native to China that can reach up to 12 feet in height and width. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.3 feet; largest on record - 20 x 20 feet. Though it does not naturally grow as a tree, it can be trained as such.
The double serrate edged leaves are up to 4 x 1 inches in size and are often 3 lobed.
They are green in summer turning to yellow in autumn.
It is smothered in spring by double or semi-double, pale pink flowers up to 2 inches across that are borne in early spring before the foliage appears.
The downy skinned, red fruits vary in abundance from year to year.
For more vigorous growth and better blooming the following year; cut flowered branches hard immediately after bloom in finished.
Hardy zones 2 to 7

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* historic archive photo


'Multiplex'
A larger, more vigorous form, reaching 15 x 15 feet in size, sometimes more.

Prunus umbellata ( Flatwoods Plum )
A strong branched, small tree reaching around 20 feet in height that is native to bottomlands and swamps in the southeast U.S. ( from far southeast Oklahoma to Tennessee to North Carolina, south to the Gulf Coast and central Florida ).
It does NOT sucker and form thickets. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 43 x 37 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The singly-toothed, small, oblong leaves only reach 2.8 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in length.
They are bronze at first during spring turning to deep green in summer then to golden-yellow in autumn.
The white flowers up to an inch in width are borne in early spring before the foliage emerges.
The fruits are sour, glaucous purplish black and up to 0.5 inches in width.
The fruits are generally used in making preserves only.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 and tolerant of dry, sandy soils.

Prunus virginiana ( Choke Cherry )
Native to Canada and the northern U.S. ( northern British Columbia to Newfoundland, south to mountainous parts of California, AZ and New Mexico to Oklahoma to western North Carolina to Maryland...not south of Maryland on coastal plain ); this is a variable plant often seen as an understory shrub in the wild though on ideal sites can become a small to medium size tree to 30 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet with trunk diameter increase of 1 inch; largest on record - 80 x 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet recorded in Owings Mills, Maryland. Short-lived, it rarely exceeds 50 years in age.
The oval or elliptic leaves are up to 6 x 4 inches in size though often only half that. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The 0.5 inches, white flowers are borne in dense racemes up to 6 inches in length, during spring after the foliage emerges.
The small red to black fruits, up to 0.5 inches wide are bitter and acidic though loved by birds. The name Chokecherry comes from the reputation of the fruit of this tree tasting bad, however cooking does considerable improve the taste.
The bark is red brown with pale lenticals.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 and tolerant of wind, salt, shade, heat and drought but prone to borers.

* photos taken on April 17 2010 in Clarksville, MD

* photo taken on Apr 26 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Apr 25 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Canada Red'
Purple-red foliage. Comes 70 % true from seed.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Midnight Shubert'
Non suckering, fast growing tree. The foliage is larger than the species and is green in at first spring, soon turning to deep purple.

'Shubert'
More disease resistant than the species. Foliage is green at first in spring before turning to deep purple.

* photo taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 15 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos taken on Oct 19 2015 in Howard Co., MD


Prunus x yedoensis ( Yoshino Cherry )
A rapid growing, wide spreading, rounded medium sized tree reaching up to 50 feet that is the hybrid between Prunus speciosa and P. subhirtella. It is upright when young and eventually develops a spreading crown. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 53 years - 42 x 61 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.1 feet; largest on record - 60 x 73 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.6 feet.
Many large trees grow around the Tidal Basin in Washington, DC and at Longwood Gardens near Philly. Somewhat short-lived, Yoshino Cherries exceeding 100 years in age are very rare.
The sharply toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size.
They are bright green at first turning to glossy deep green during summer then to vivid orange and red in autumn.
The fragrant flowers are borne in racemes of 5 or 6 during early spring before and as the foliage emerges. The blooms which smother the canopy are white fading to soft light pink before falling. The blooms are followed by tiny, black fruits.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( possible 4 if very sheltered ) in full sun on most well drained soils. Alkaline tolerant.

* photos taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photo taken on April 6 2010 in Columbia, MD





* photo taken on Apr 28 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on May 3 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 16 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 25 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 29 2016 in Harford Co., MD


'Akebeno'
Fast growing with foliage that remains deep green late, often into November.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Shidare Yoshino'
Profuse pure white flowers and weeping branches. Reaches up to 15 x 25 feet in 10 years, 25 x 30 feet in less than 20 years, eventual size unknown.